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Patient and Healthcare Professional Narratives

This guide discusses the importance of healthcare narratives and directs users to the appropriate resources to learn more about them.

Citing & Writing



The two most common citation styles used in the health sciences are APA and AMA. See the guides below for more information on formatting and access the publication manuals to both styles by clicking on the book covers.

Citing & Writing



Ask your professor what style you should use for your papers and reference lists. Some prefer the style used by a specific journal and some prefer CSE. See the Citing Your Sources guide below for additional citation styles.


Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is the preferred citation style for many scientific disciplines. The 8th edition (2014) is the most current manual.

CSE has two forms, Name-Year and Citation-Sequence. Check with your professor for their preferred method.


The ACS Style Guide is from the American Chemical Society. The most recent edition is from 2006.


Duquesne University provides access to Endnote, which is citation management software. EndNote or any other citation management software is essential for graduate students and faculty working on publications.

See the guide below for directions on installing EndNote, importing references, and using some of its other features. Video tutorials are available here as well.


Duquesne's Writing Center offers numerous resources for students to receive help on writing-related assignments including opportunities to meet one-on-one with tutoring staff, access to handouts on writing tips, and more.


When pursuing a career in Phenomenology, you'll encounter opportunities to publish your research. In order to make an informed decision of where to publish your research, it's important to familiarize yourself with relevant journals, read up on funding opportunities, and learn about open access.

Learn more about these factors by reviewing the guide below.