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Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Populations

The scope of this guide is meant to inform all who interact with it on related issues to transgender and gender non-conforming populations.


6 May 1933: Looting of the Institute of Sexology. (n.d.). Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Almarri, S. (2018). Identities of a single root: The triad of the Khuntha, Mukhannath, and Khanith. Women & Language, 41(1).

Ashcroft, A. (2021, February 18). Michael Dillon: The 2 laws which could have saved him. LGBT Lawyers.

Baral, S. D., Poteat, T., Stömdahl, S., Wirtz, A. L., Guadamuz, T. E., & Beyrer, C. (2012). Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 214-222.

Center for American Progress & Movement Advancement Project. (2016). Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBT people. Center for American Progress.

Choi, A. (2023, April 6). Record number of anti-LGBTQ bills have been introduced this year. CNN

Corbman, R. (2019. June 26). Sylvia Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson: Listen to the newly unearthed interview with Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries. New-York Historical Society Museum & Library.

Davidson, J. W. (2022, June 15). How the impact of Bostock v. Clayton County on LGBTQ rights continues to expand. ACLU.

Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A., & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2006). Clinical management of gender identity disorder in adolescents: A protocol on psychological and paediatric endocrinology aspects, European Journal of Endocrinology155(1), S131-S137.

Deutsch, M. (2016, June 17). Creating a safe and welcoming clinic environment. UCSF Gender Affirming Health Program.

Deutsch, M. (2020, July). Information on estrogen hormone therapy. UCSF Gender Affirming Health Program.

Deutsch, M. (2020, July). Information on testosterone hormone therapy. UCSF Gender Affirming Health Program.

Donegan, S. (n.d.). Pioneers of gender reassignment surgery. LGBT Health & Wellbeing.

Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey. (n.d.). Kinsey Institute, Indiana University. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Drescher, J. (2013). Gender identity diagnoses: History and controversies. In B. P. C. Kreukels, T. D. Steensma, A. L. C. de Vries, & J. K. McGuire (Eds.), Gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development: Progress in care and knowledge (pp. 137-150). Springer.

Epple, C. (1998). Coming to terms with Navajo Nádleehí: A critique of Berdache, "gay," "alternate gender," and "two-spirit". American Ethnologist25(2), pp. 267-290.

Feinberg, L. (2017, November 2). Transgender liberation: A movement whose time has come. Workers World.

Feminizing hormone therapy. (2020). Trans Primary Care.

File, T., & Marlay M. (2022, June 16). Regardless of household type, LGBT adults struggled more with mental health than non-LGBT adults. U.S. Census Bureau.

Fort, P. (2017, November 7). Election of transgender lawmaker in Virginia makes history. NPR.

From GI Joe to GI Jane: Christine Jorgensen's story. (2020, June 30). The National WWII Museum. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Gender-affirming care. (2019). UCSF Gender Affirming Health Program.

Gender dysphoria. (2013). American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Gender incongruence and transgender health in the ICD. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Harvard Divinity School. (2018). The third gender and hijras. Religious Literacy Project

Human Rights Campaign. (2018). Gender-expansive youth report. Human Rights Campaign.

Human Rights Campaign. (2023, June 1). Map: Attacks on gender affirming care by state. Human Rights Campaign. .

Human Rights Campaign. (n.d.). Transgender people and HIV: What we know. Human Rights Campaign.

InQueery: The history of the word "genderqueer" as we know it. (2018, November 7). Them. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Inhoffen, H. H., Logemann, W., Hohlweg, W., & Serini A. (1938). Untersuchungen in der sexualhormon-reihe. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft (A and B Series), 71(5), 1024-1032.

Jha, S., & Bouman W. P. (2023). Introduction to healthcare for transgender and gender-diverse people. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 87, 102299.

Joan, M. M., Beardsworth, D. E., Loughlin, J. S., Crawford, J. D., Bode, H. H., Rivier, J., Vale, W., Kushner, D. C., Crigler, J. F., & Crowley, W. F. (1983). Long-term treatement of central precocious puberty with a long-acting analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: Effects on somatic growth and skeletal maturation. New England Journal of Medicine, 309(21), 1286-1290.

Karl Ulrichs - nominee. (n.d.). The Legacy Project. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Keuroghlian, A.S., Reisner, S.L., White, J.M., & Weiss, R.D. (2015). Substance use and treatment of substance use disorders in a community sample of transgender adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 152, 139-146.

Kim Coco Iwamoto. (n.d.). LGBTQ+ Victory Institute. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Lacey, H. (2022, April 30). Jules Gill-Peterson discusses the unfinished trans story of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter.

Lili Elbe - Nominee. (n.d.). The Legacy Project. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Magrath, W. L. (2022). The fall of the nation's first gender-affirming surgery clinic. Annals of Internal Medicine, 175(10), 1462-1468.

Mapping attacks on LGBTQ rights in U.S. state legislatures. (2023, June 9). American Civil Liberties Union.

Martin, C. (2013, February 2). Joanne Conte's life story a complex tale of gender, politics. The Denver Post.

Masculinizing hormone therapy. (2020). Trans Primary Care.

Meyerowitz, J. (2001). Sex research at the borders of gender: Transvestites, transsexuals, and Alfred C. Kinsey. Bulleting of the History of Medicine, 75(1), 72-90.

Moran, M. (2015, May 28). New APA logo unifies image of psychiatry. APA Psychiatric News.

Movement Advancement Project & GLSEN. (2017). Separation and stigma: Transgender youth & school facilities. Movement Advancement Project.

Naquin, C. (2017, February 15). The Empire Strike Back: Trans icon Sandy Stone receives this year's OUTsider Legacy Award. The Austin Chronicle.

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2019). Trans and gender non-conforming homelessness.

National Center for Transgender Equality. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey.

National Center for Transgender Equality. (2016). The report of the 2015 U.S. transgender survey.

National Women's Law Center. (2014, May 21). Health care refusals harm patients: The threat to LGBT people and individuals living with HIV/AIDS. National Women's Law Center.

Naz Khan, F. (2022). A history of transgender and gender diverse health care: From medical mistreatment to gender-affirmative health care. In A. S. Keuroghlian, J. Potter, & S. L. Reisner (Eds.), Transgender and gender diverse health care: The Fenway guide. McGraw Hill.

Nestle, J. (2002). GenderQueer: Voices from beyond the sexual binary (C. Howell, Ed., & R. A. Wilchins, Ed.). Alyson Books.

Nevada Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Therapeutic class overview: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists/luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists.

Olson, J., Schrager, S. M., Belzer, M., Simons, L. K., & Clark, L. F. (2015). Baseline physiologic and psychosocial characteristics of transgender youth seeking care for gender dysphoria. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(4), 374-380.

Parshall, A. (2023, May 1). What are puberty blockers and how do they work? Scientific American.

Pasulka, N. (2015, May 5). Ladies in the streets: Before Stonewall, transgender uprising changed lives. NPR.

Puberty blockers for transgender and gender-diverse youth. (2023, June 14). Mayo Clinic.

Ruzicka, L., & Wettstein A. (1935). Sexualhormone VII. Über die künsterliche herstellung des testikelhormons Testosteron (Androsten-3-on-17-ol). Helvetica Chimica Acta, 18(1), 1264-1275.

Schaefer, L. C., & Wheeler, C. C. (1995). Harry Benjamin's first ten cases (1938-1953): A clinical historical note. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24(1), 73-93.

Schillace, B. (2021, May 10). The forgotten history of the world's first trans clinic. Scientific American.

Segal, C. (2017, June 15). Oregon becomes first state to add gender-neutral option to driver's licenses. PBS.

Shumer, D. E., Nokoff, N. J., & Spack, N. P. (2016). Advances in the care of transgender children and adolescents. Advances in Pediatrics, 63(1), 79-102.

Slotta, K. H., Ruschig, H., & Fels, E. (1934). Reindarstellung der hormone aud dem Corpus luteum (II. Mitteil.). Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft (A and B Series), 67(9), 1624-1626.

Stables, D. (2021). Asia's isle of five separate genders. BBC Travel.

Steinmetz, K. (2014, May 30). Board rules that medicare can cover gender reassignment surgery. Time.

Stip, E. (2015). RaeRae and Mahu: Third Polynesian gender. Mental Health in Quebec40(3), pp. 193-208.

Theophano, T. (2015). Gender Public Advocacy Coalition (GenderPAC). GLBTQArchive.

'They' is Merriam-Webster's word of the year 2019. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

Thoreson, R. (2020, March 7). Midwest has shown it's ready for transgender rights. Human Rights Watch.

Trans medical care at the office of Dr. Harry Benjamin. (n.d.). NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project. Retrieved June 16, 2023, from

The Trevor Project. (2022). 2022 national survey on LGBTQ youth mental health.

Trotta, D. (2019, June 12). Forsaken transgender pioneers recognized 50 years after Stonewall. Reuters Graphics.

De Pedro, K.T., Gilreath, T.D., Jackson, C., Esqueda, M.C. (2016). Substance use among transgender students in California public middle and high schools. Journal of School Health, 87(5), 303-309,

United States Census Bureau. (2022). Mental health struggles higher among LGBT adults than non-LGBT adults in all age groups.

The White House. (2021). Memorializing Transgender Day of Remembrance: A report from the interagency working group on safety, opportunity, and inclusion for transgender and gender diverse individuals.

Veler, C. D., Thayer, S., & Doisy, E. A. (1930). The preparation of the crystalline follicular ovarian hormone: Theelin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 87(2), 357-371.

Wilchins, R. A. (1995). In your face no. 2 (Fall 1995). Digital Transgender Archive.