MLA Style Manual, 9th Edition
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities (Purdue OWL).
The ninth edition of the handbook focuses on clarification, guidance, and expansion on MLA 8, an edition that featured extensive changes. MLA 9 provides more guidance and focus for those seeking it after the last update, especially warranted with emerging sources, digital and otherwise. Other changes include a new chapter on inclusive language.
This guide is intended to provide you with examples from the MLA Handbook for your research process. Refer to the examples below on how to cite in the text of your research.
Click the blue tab labeled "Creating a Works Cited Page" to review examples of citations on a Works Cited page.
If you have further questions, please visit our Ask-A-Librarian page.
Core Elements to MLA-style Citations
The MLA Handbook works to create citations that are constructed by shared traits of research and reference resources.
There are now core elements that must be identified to create a citation. The following chart is provided for more information on how to format a citation:
The finished citation will be created by filling in these elements, in the order of which they appear [starting with Author, ending with Location].
If a resource does not have an element listed or an element is not relevant to the resource, it can be omitted from the entry. For more information on the elements, review this page.
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