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Incarcerated Populations

The scope of this guide is meant to inform all who interact with it on related issues to mass incarceration and link interested parties to data and advocacy resources.


Beck, A.J., Berzofsky, M., Caspar, R., & Krebs, C. (2013). Sexual victimization in prisons and jails reported by inmates, 2011-12. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bronson, J., & Berzofsky, M. (2017). Indicators of mental health problems reported by prisoners and jail inmates, 2011-12. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Carson, E.A., & Kluckow, R. (2023). Correctional population in the United States, 2021 – statistical tables. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Couloute, L., & Kopf, D. (2018). Out of prison & out of work: Unemployment among formerly incarcerated people. Prison Policy Initiative.

Dyszlewski, N., Harrison-Cox, L., & Ortiz, R.M. (2015). Mass incarceration: An annotated bibliography. Roger Williams University Law Review165

Jones, A. (2021). Visualizing the unequal treatment of LGBTQ people in the criminal justice system. Prison Policy Initiative.

Jones, J.M. (2020). Black, White adults' confidence diverges most on police. Gallup.

Kolodziejczak, O., & Sinclair, S.J. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to effective mental health care in correctional settings. Journal of Correctional Health Care24(3), 253-263.

Lydon, J., Carrington, K., Low, H., Miller, R., & Yazdy, M. (2015). Coming out of concrete closets: A report on Black & Pink's national LGBTQ prisoner survey.

Mapping Police Violence. (2023). Mapping police violence

McCann, S. (2022). Health care behind bars: Missed appointments, no standards, and high costs. Vera.

Nellis, A. (2021). The color of justice: Racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons. The Sentencing Project. 

Penal Reform International. (n.d.) Prison overcrowding

Prins, S.J. (2014). The prevalence of mental illnesses in U.S. state prisons: A systematic review. Psychiatric Services65(7), 862-872.

Solomon, A. (2021). What words we use - and avoid - when covering people and incarceration. The Marshall Project.

Steadman, H.J., Osher, F.C., Robbins, P.C., Case, B., & Samuels, S. (2009). Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatric Services60(6), 761-765.

Strutin, K. (2018). Caged humanity: Conditions of confinement and death in custody. Law and Technology Resources for Legal Professionals.

Truman, J.L., & Morgan, R.E. (2022). Violent victimization by sexual orientation and gender identity, 2017-2020. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Tsolkas, P. (2019). “It smelled like death”: Reports of mold contamination in prisons and jails. Prison Legal News, 15.

Uggen, C., Larson, R., Shannon, S., & Stewart, R. (2022). Locked out 2022: Estimates of people denied voting rights. The Sentencing Project.

Umbreit, M.S. (1998). Restorative justice through victim-offender mediation: A multi-site assessment. Western Criminology Review1(1).

United States Census Bureau. (2022). Quick facts. United States. United States Census Bureau.

Vasilogambros, M. (2021). Many in jail can vote, but exercising that right isn't easy. Pew Charitable Trusts,

Vera Institute of Justice. (2022, April 27). Report - The criminalization of poverty In Tennessee - details how criminal justice policies and policing make being poor a crime and shares a different vision for community safety. Vera Institute of Justice.

Wang, L., Sawyer, W., Herring, T., & Widra, E. (2022). Beyond the count: A deep dive into state prison populations. Prison Policy Initiative.