At Duquesne University, Chicago style is the preferred citation format for the History and Theology Departments, as well as the Center for Global Health Ethics.
Note: The above departments typically uses the "Notes and Bibliography" format of Chicago style, not the "Author Date" format.
Chicago Style was created by the University of Chicago. It is a set of rules for formatting publications, including research papers.
In Chicago style, you must cite sources that you have quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places
Access Date: The date you first look at a source. The access date is added to the end of citations for all websites except library databases.
Bibliography: Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.
Citation: Details about one cited source.
Citing: The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.
Footnote: Details about one source that you cited in the text of your paper, which appears in the footer at the bottom of the page.
Paraphrasing: Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.
Plagiarism: Taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another.
Quoting: The copying of words of text originally published elsewhere. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.
This guide was created by Hannah Goss, English Department Intern, and Ted Bergfelt, Humanities Librarian, in September 2022. It is based on a guide originally created by Stephine Michel, University of Portland, and was made with her kind permission.