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AMA Citation Guide

Drug Information and Medical Resources General

Drug Information and Medical Resources General Information

General Form for Citing Databases (AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed.)

Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. publisher’s name; year of publication and/or last update. Accessed Month, Day, Year. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works]

General Notes:

  • When a database has a common name, include “[database online]” after its title to help the reader understand what you are citing. AMA uses square brackets for explanatory notes.
  • When listing URLs, provide the database’s primary URL (listed below for each database). Do not use the long URL that you see when accessing the database.
  • Some databases do not list authors. If no author is listed, start your citation with the name of the drug or page you are citing.
  • As of the 11th edition, AMA no longer recommends a location of the publisher in a citation

Database and Resource Specific Examples

Database and Resource Specific Citation Examples

AccessMedicine and AccessPharmacy

1. Atorvastatin. Drugs. AccessPharmacy. McGraw-Hill Medical. Accessed June 11, 2020. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com

2. Atorvastatin, Contraindications. Drugs. AccessMedicine. McGraw-Hill Medical. Accessed June 11, 2020. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name or page title for the information you are citing and the subpage with a comma (example 2)
  • List the section of AccessPharmacy or AccessMedicine you are citing, like "Drugs" 
  • To cite books from AccessPharmacy and AccessMedicine, follow the instructions on the AccessMedicine guide citation page

ClinicalTrials.gov

3. Evaluation of phage therapy for the treatment of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infections in burned patients (PHAGOBURN). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02116010. Updated July 23, 2015. Accessed October 13, 2016. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02116010

4. Rizzardini G. Clinical Study To Evaluate The Performance And Safety Of Favipiravir in COVID-19. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04336904. Updated April 8, 2020. Accessed June 15, 2020. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04336904

Database Specific Notes

  • Include the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier after the database name as shown in the examples
  • The format for citing ClinicalTrials.gov is a little different than the basic database format, so use the examples to format your citation

Lexicomp Online
5. Etodolac. Lexi-Drugs. Lexicomp Online. Lexicomp; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://online.lexi.com  

6. Etodolac. AHFS Essentials: Adult and Pediatric. Lexicomp Online. Lexicomp; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://online.lexi.com  

7. Lactic Acid. Lab Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. Lexicomp Online. Lexicomp; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://online.lexi.com  

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • List the “database” that you are citing (e.g., Lexi-Drugs, AHFS Essentials: Adult and Pediatric, Lab Tests and Diagnostic Procedures in the above examples).
  • Make sure to cite the latest copyright date, which is listed on all Lexicomp pages a range of dates (the above example uses 2020, the latest date listed).
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.
  • The explanatory note “[database online]” is not included because it’s self-evident from the database name.

Micromedex
8. Etodolac. Quick Answers. IBM Micromedex [database online]. Truven Health Analytics/IBM Watson Health; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com

9. Etodolac. In-Depth Answers. IBM Micromedex [database online]. Truven Health Analytics/IBM Watson Health; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com

10. Etodolac. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. IBM Micromedex [database online]. Truven Health Analytics/IBM Watson Health; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com

11. Active Ingredient: Etodolac. RED BOOK Online. IBM Micromedex [database online]. Truven Health Analytics/IBM Watson Health; 2020. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • Indicate the section or book that you are citing (e.g., Quick Answers, In-Depth Answers, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, and RED BOOK Online in the above examples).
  • Make sure to cite the latest publication or copyright date (2020 in the above examples). Look at the bottom of the monograph or page for a publication/update date; if none is listed go to the very bottom of the page and use the Micromedex copyright date listed.
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.

UpToDate
12. Solomon DH. Nonselective NSAIDs: Adverse Cardiovascular Effects. UpToDate. UpToDate; 2020. Accessed June 11, 2020.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the “topic” that you are citing as the title.
  • UpToDate is both the database and the publisher name, which is why it’s listed twice.
  • Since UpToDate is updated every four months, use the current year as the publication date (2020 in the above example).
  • UpToDate recommends using a different method of citing its topics, but the above method is consistent with the AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed., approach to citing databases.