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COMM 330 IMC Functions: Public Relations: Citation

Citing Your Sources

There are numerous formats that can be used to cite sources. Most of the time undergraduates at Duquesne will find themselves needing to use one of three:

  • MLA - Created by the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and the humanities. The current version is the 7th edition.
  • APA - Created by the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing. The current version is the 6th edition.
  • Chicago Manual of Style - Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 16th edition.

When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as a Works Cited page or Reference list).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. PDFs of these documents are available below.

 APA (6th edition): In-text and Reference List

 Chicago, notes and bibliography (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

 Chicago, author-date (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

 MLA (7th): In-text and Works Cited