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Citing Your Sources
There are different citation styles (ex: APA, MLA) that can be used to cite sources and format papers. Two of the most common citation styles are:
The Duquesne University Writing Center has created many helpful guides to assist you with creating in-text citations and citations for your list of references for many different citation styles.
Citation styles mandate certain formatting, word choice, punctuation, capitalization etc. If you are submitting for publication, you will want to be familiar with these rules. The following books are located at the Gumberg Library Reference Desk:
The ACS Style Guide by In the time since the second edition of The ACS Style Guide was published, the rapid growth of electronic communication has dramatically changed the scientific, technical, and medical (STM) publication world. This dynamic mode of dissemination is enabling scientists, engineers, and medical practitioners all over the world to obtain and transmit information quickly and easily. An essential constant in this changing environment is the requirement that information remain accurate, clear, unambiguous, and ethically sound. This extensive revision of The ACS Style Guide thoroughly examines electronic tools now available to assist STM writers in preparing manuscripts and communicating with publishers. Valuable updates include discussions of markup languages, citation of electronic sources, online submission of manuscripts, and preparation of figures, tables, and structures. In keeping current with the changing environment, this edition also contains references to many resources on the internet. With this wealth of new information, The ACS Style Guide's Third Edition continues its long tradition of providing invaluable insight on ethics in scientific communication, the editorial process, copyright, conventions in chemistry, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and writing style for any STM author, reviewer, or editor. The Third Edition is the definitive source for all information needed to write, review, submit, and edit scholarly and scientific manuscripts.
Publication Date: 2006-07-20
The Chicago Manual of Style by The Sixteenth Edition is available in book form and as a subscription website. The same content from The Chicago Manual of Style is in both versions. While digital technologies have revolutionized the publishing world in the twenty-first century, one thing still remains true: The Chicago Manual of Style is the authoritative, trusted source that writers, editors, and publishers turn to for guidance on style and process. For the sixteenth edition, every aspect of coverage has been reconsidered to reflect how publishing professionals work today. Though processes may change, the Manual continues to offer the clear, well-considered style and usage advice it has for more than a century. The sixteenth edition offers expanded information on producing electronic publications, including web-based content and e-books. An updated appendix on production and digital technology demystifies the process of electronic workflow and offers a primer on the use of XML markup, and a revised glossary includes a host of terms associated with electronic as well as print publishing. The Chicago system of documentation has been streamlined and adapted for a variety of online and digital sources. Figures and tables are updated throughout the book--including a return to the Manual's popular hyphenation table and new, comprehensive listings of Unicode numbers for special characters. With the wisdom of a hundred years of editorial practice and a wealth of industry expertise from both Chicago's staff and an advisory board of publishing professionals, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, is an invaluable resource in this rapidly changing world. If you work with words--no matter what the delivery medium--this is the one reference you simply must have.
Publication Date: 2010-08-01
MLA Handbook by The Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. Works are published today in a dizzying range of formats. A book, for example, may be read in print, online, or as an e-book--or perhaps listened to in an audio version. On the Web, modes of publication are regularly invented, combined, and modified. Previous editions of the MLA Handbookprovided separate instructions for each format, and additional instructions were required for new formats. In this groundbreaking new edition of its best-selling handbook, the MLA recommends instead one universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any type of source. Shorter and redesigned for easy use, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook guides writers through the principles behind evaluating sources for their research. It then shows them how to cite sources in their writing and create useful entries for the works-cited list. More than just a new edition, this is a new MLA style.
Publication Date: 2016-04-01
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioural sciences. It provides invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the ethics of authorship to the word choice that best reduces bias in language. Well-known for its authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, and tone that will result in strong, simple, and elegant scientific communication. The sixth edition offers new and expanded instruction on publication ethics, statistics, journal article reporting standards, electronic reference formats, and the construction of tables and figures. The sixth edition has been revised and updated to include: new ethics guidance on such topics as determining authorship and terms of collaboration, duplicate publication, plagiarism and self-plagiarism, disguising of participants, validity of instrumentation, and making data available to others for verification; new journal article reporting standards to help readers report empirical research with clarity and precision; simplified APA heading style to make it more conducive to electronic publication; updated guidelines for reducing bias in language to reflect current practices and preferences, including a new section on presenting historical language that is inappropriate by present standards; new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics and a significantly revised table of statistical abbreviations; and, new instruction on using supplemental files containing lengthy data sets and other media. This book includes significantly expanded content on the electronic presentation of data to help readers understand the purpose of each kind of display and choose the best match for communicating the results of the investigation, with new examples for a variety of data displays, including electro physiological and biological data. It offers consolidated information on all aspects of reference citations, with an expanded discussion of electronic sources emphasising the role of the digital object identifier (DOI) as a reliable way to locate information. It features expanded discussion of the publication process, including the function and process of peer review. It contains a discussion of ethical, legal, and policy requirements in publication; and guidelines on working with the publisher while the article is in press. Key to this edition of the Publication Manual is an updated and expanded Web presence. Look up additional supplemental material keyed to this book. This book lets you test your knowledge of APA Style with a free tutorial on style basics. It lets you learn about the changes in the sixth edition with a free tutorial reviewing key revisions. Sign up for an on-line course to enrich and enhance your understanding of APA Style. Read the APA Style blog and share your comments on writing and referencing. Consult frequently asked questions to sharpen your understanding of APA Style. This title lets you examine additional resources on such topics as ethics, statistics, and writing. It lets you familiarise yourself with submission standards for APA books and journals.
Publication Date: 2009-07-15
Duquesne University provides access to Endnote, which is citation management software. It's useful to export references from library databases into EndNote, organize your sources within EndNote and export your citations to a Works Cited page. EndNote or any other citation management software is essential for graduate students and faculty working on publications. The EndNote libguide includes helpful instructions for downloading EndNote, importing references, and connecting EndNote and Microsoft Word. Also, Gumberg Librarians regularly provide workshops in EndNote and we answer a variety of questions about EndNote as well.
Writing in the Social Sciences: Literature Review
Literature reviews are designed to do two things:
1) Explain and analyze "the literature"
2) Demonstrate how your research fits into the literature
Unlike annotated bibliographies which are lists of citations with an annotation for each source, literature reviews can be incorporated into a larger work or they can stand on their own.
Literature Review Examples and Help Guides
Systematic Reviews Guide
Systematic Reviews are a gold standard in education research. The library supports researchers with systematic reviews by providing workshops and one-on-one consultations. On the Systematic Review guide you'll see a tab, "librarian collaboration", where you are able to request librarian assistance.
Plagiarism and Academic Integrity