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Resources for ESL Students: Citation

Citing Your Sources

You will most likely be using one of the two citation styles listed below: 

  • MLA (8th ed)- From the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and the humanities. 
  • APA (6th ed)- From the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and the other Social Sciences. Nursing also uses it at Duquesne. 

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. PDFs of these documents are available below.

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

If an author has said something in an original way, it might be best to quote them. Whenever you are using the author's exact words, you should use quotation marks.

Since you can't always use direct quotes, it is important to summarize and paraphrase. Summarizing and paraphrasing must still be cited. Even though these are your own words, you need an in-text citation and a reference in the bibliography. 

Duquesne's Writing Center has a guide on paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting:

Paraphrasing, Summarizing, and Quoting

Better Safe than Sorry


"When in doubt, CITE IT!"