To ensure the originality of your own work, it is important to cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work.
A parenthetical citation is both the author and the date, separated by a comma. It can appear within or at the end of a sentence. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, put the period after the closing parenthesis.
Example: Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).
A narrative citation is when the author appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name for a narrative citation.
Example: Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative - in this case, do not use parentheses.
Example: In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
Example of a Reference List Entry & an In-Text Citation
Reference list entry:
Alexander, P.A. (2018). Past as prologue: Educational psychology's legacy and progeny. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(2),
Parenthetical citation: (Alexander, 2018)
Narrative citation: Alexander (2018)
Citing Multiple Works
When citing multiple works, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons.
Example: (Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017)
Citing Specific Parts of a Source
Provide an author-date citation for the work plus information about the specific part. Specific parts of a source that can be cited include pages, paragraphs, sections, tables, figures, chapters, and slide numbers in PowerPoint.
Example: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, p.10)