Seventh Edition for Students
In the new edition, APA has created a student paper which is broad and flexible because students submit their papers to institutions rather than to an APA journal.
Student papers should include:
Student papers do not typically include a running head, author note, or an abstract, unless required by their instructor.
To see an example of the official format of a student paper, click the student sample paper link below:
Seventh Edition for Professionals
Paper elements appear in various combinations depending on the nature of the work. Author's seeking publication should refer to the journal's instructions that are different from or in addition to those specified by APA style.
Manuscripts submitted for publication by professionals should always include:
Papers may also include keywords, footnotes, tables, figures, appendices, and/or supplemental materials.
To see an example of the official format of a professional paper, click the professional sample paper link below:
When to Include DOIs and URLs
Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.
If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL in the reference as follows: