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ETD Preparation & Submission: Guidelines for Graduate Students: Formatting How-To

Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETD) LibGuide

Formatting Help

Don't forget to remove personal information from your ETD! Documents such as IRB protocols/consent forms and fliers often include your personal phone number and/or email. Make sure to remove this information so that it does not become public with your ETD.

Many ETD authors write each chapter in a separate document. This is fine! When working with endnotes, though, it can sometimes be difficult to combine all of those chapters into one document.

Follow the steps under Section I below to combine your chapters. If you need your endnotes to appear at the end of every chapter rather than at the end of the document, complete the steps under Section I and then move to Section II.

I. Combining chapters with endnotes into a new document

  1. Create a new Word document and save it with a unique filename.
  2. Open all of your chapter documents.
  3. Copy the text of your first chapter and paste it into the new document that you created.
  4. Copy the text of your second chapter and paste it between the text of the first chapter and the beginning of the notes (so, above the line before note 1).

A screenshot showing the whitespace at the end of a chapter, before the endnotes begin, with an arrow pointing to it that says "insert your next chapter in this whitespace"

  1. If you plan to have the endnotes collected at the end of the document rather than at the end of each chapter, go ahead and add page breaks between your chapters. Do not add extra page breaks between chapters if you are planning to proceed to Section II.
  2. Repeat Step 4 for every chapter, copying and pasting each chapter in order between the end of your text and the beginning of your notes.
  3. You will notice after you paste in your References/Bibliography section that it appears before your notes section.
    • If you are planning to arrange your document so that your endnotes appear at the end of every chapter, proceed to Section II.
    • Otherwise, proceed to the next step.
  4. Insert a Section Break between the end of your last chapter and the beginning of your References/Bibliography. See Section II, Step 6 for instructions about how to insert a Section Break.

II. Arranging your document so that endnotes occur at the end of every chapter

  1. After following the steps in Section I, your notes will all appear at the end of the document. Don’t worry, we’ll fix this!
  2. Right click (or, on a Mac, Command-click) somewhere in the notes field. That should bring up this menu:

A screenshot of the right-click/cmd-click menu with "Note options..." highlighted

  1. Select “Note Options…” That will bring up this box:​

A screenshot of the Footnote and Endnote setting with the Location of endnotes set to "End of section"

  1. Select “End of section” in the drop-down next to “Endnotes.”
  2. Nothing will change yet! Don’t worry, we’re almost there!
  3. At the end of every chapter, e.g. between the final sentence of chapter 1 and the header for chapter 2, insert a Section Break. You can find the button to insert a section break under the Layout tab in the top ribbon, and then under Breaks. Use the “Next Page” Section Break:

A screenshot of Microsoft Word, in the Layout tab of the top ribbon. The dropdown for Breaks is selected, and "Next page" is highlighted

  1. This should cause the notes for chapter 1 to follow directly between chapter 1 & chapter 2. Repeat for every chapter.

In most cases, you can simply save the Word file as a PDF.

  1. In Microsoft Word: File --> "Save As" --> PDF
  2. Microsoft Word 2003 (or earlier): File --> Print --> Select Printer Name "Adobe PDF"

You may also use one of the following options:

  • DocMorph: If the above does not work, a PDF can be created via this free online PDF conversion service provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • ProQuest/UMI ETD Administrator: Once you create an account with UMI/ProQuest you can simply upload your Word Doc. ProQuest will convert to PDF automatically.

We recommend using the Front Matter Template, which already has the pagination set up.

Do you have an image or a table that is too large to fit on a standard (portrait-oriented) page? Use a landscape page! You will need to change the page orientation, as well as the location of the page number.

Setting up an Auto Table of Contents is a little more work initially, but can make your life much easier. In general, the process involves assigning specific styles to headings. These headings will be word-for-word included in your Auto Table of Contents. When you want to include page numbers, you simply right-click the Table of Contents, select "Update page numbers", and Word will take care of it! This saves a lot of time over updating the pages manually.

Specific instructions are included in the Formatting Tip Sheets (right column).

Line numbers must match the Front Matter Template (FMT) exactly. Here is how to turn line numbers on in Word:

1. Use Select All (Ctrl+A) to select the entire document

A screenshot of a Word document with all text selected


2. Click "Page Layout"

A screenshot of the Microsoft Word ribbon with the Page Layout tab selected


3. Click "Line Numbers"

A screenshot of the Microsoft Word ribbon with the Page Layout tab selected and an arrow pointing to the "Line Numbers" option


4. Click "Restart Each Page"

A screenshot of the Microsoft Word ribbon with the Page Layout tab selected and the dropdown menu for Line Numbers displaying. The "Restart each page" option is highlighted


5. Line numbers will appear on the left-hand side of your page. These will allow you to follow and match the line numbers as outlined in the ETD Guidelines and the Front Matter Template (FMT). To undo line numbers before you submit your ETD, simply repeat steps 1-4 above, selecting "None" in step 4.

A screenshot of a document with line numbers starting at 1 at the top

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Formatting Tip Sheets

Some of the most useful techniques, with step-by-step instructions for the different versions of MS Word.