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Near Eastern Mythology: Citation

Marduk, Public Domain, Source: Wikimedia Commons

Chicago Manual of Style

To use this database off-campus, when you click on the link below, you will be asked for your Multipass username and password.

Citing Your Sources

There are numerous formats that can be used to cite sources. Three of the most commonly used formats at Duquesne are:

  • APA - Created by the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing. The current version is the 6th edition.
  • Chicago Manual of Style - Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 16th edition.
  • MLA - Created by the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and may be used in some of the other Humanities. The current version is the 8th edition, however documentation for both the 7th and 8th editions is given below.

When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as a Works Cited page or Reference List).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style and MLA. PDFs of these documents are available below.

 APA (6th edition)In-text and Reference List

 Chicago, notes and bibliography (16th edition)In-text and Bibliography

 Chicago, author-date (16th edition)In-text and Bibliography

 MLA (7th)In-text and Works Cited 
 MLA (8th): In-text and Works Cited and Formatting

Citing Articles from Literature Resource Center & Lion

Click the link below to see a document describing how to cite articles from Literature Resource Center and LION in MLA format (8th edition).

Citing EBooks from Library Databases

Click the link below to see how to cite a book from a library database in MLA format (8th edition).