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Near Eastern Mythology: Citation

Marduk, Public Domain, Source: Wikimedia Commons


Style Databases

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Style Research Guides

Citing Your Sources

There are numerous formats that can be used to cite sources. Three of the most commonly used formats at Duquesne are:

  • APA - Created by the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing. The current version is the 6th edition.
  • Chicago Manual of Style - Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 17th edition.
  • MLA - Created by the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and may be used in some of the other Humanities. The current version is the 8th edition.

When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as a Works Cited page or Reference List).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style and MLA. PDFs of these documents are available below.

APA (6th edition)In-text and Reference List

Chicago, notes and bibliography (17th edition)In-text and Bibliography

Chicago, author-date (17th edition)In-text and Reference List

MLA (8th): In-text and Works Cited and Formatting

Citing Articles from Literature Resource Center & Lion

Click the link below to see a document describing how to cite articles from Literature Resource Center and LION in MLA format (8th edition).

Citing EBooks from Library Databases

Click the link below to see how to cite a book from a library database in MLA format (8th edition).