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MUSC 302W: Musicianship VI: Citation Help

This LibGuide was created for Dr. Binder's Musicianship VI classes as a resource to help with the research assignment.

Citation Styles

For the purposes of this class, you are encouraged to use "Chicago Style" citations. However, if you choose, you may opt to go with any other standard citation formats, such as APA or MLA. Please inform Dr. Binder if you are using one of these alternate citation styles.

Chicago Style

The Chicago Notes-Bibliography system that you are encouraged to use is a system for referencing sources through footnote citations in your writing and through bibliography pages at the end of your paper.

You should include a footnote each time you use a source, whether it is a direct quote or a paraphrase/summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced.

The bibliography at the end of your paper is an alphabetical list of all sources you have used. All sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or keyword by which someone would search for the source can be used.


Examples of Chicago Style citation:

Footnote or endnote form: Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding bibliography form: Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

APA style makes use of in-text citations for both direct quotations and paraphrased references to sources. The in-text citation should always be at the end of the sentence, like in this sentence (Author, Year). A references section should also be included at the end of your paper in alphabetical order.


Examples of APA citations:

Article basic citation form: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 

Book basic citation form: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

More examples can be found at Purdue OWL