There are numerous formats scholars can use to cite sources. Most of the time undergraduates at Duquesne will find themselves needing to use one of three:
- MLA - Created by the Modern Language Association, scholars and writers in English and the humanities employ this citation style. The current version is the 8th edition. The follow Purdue OWL page details the changes made from the 7th edition to the 8th edition: MLA Eighth Edition: What's New and Different
- APA - Created by the American Psychological Association, scholars, and writers in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing, use this style of citation. The current version is the 6th edition.
- Chicago Manual of Style - Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 16th edition.
When we speak of citing, writers are usually referring to two things. The first is citing within the text of paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as Works Cited page or Reference list).
The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in APA and Chicago Manual of Style. PDFs of these documents are available below. The
APA (6th edition): In-text and Reference List
Chicago, notes, and bibliography (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography
Chicago, author-date (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography