Explore these guides for more in-depth eBook resources available within different discipline fields.
In-text citation can be confusing since eBooks often lack page numbers (though PDF versions may have them). The best option is to paraphrase the work, thus avoiding the problem.
Paraphrase work (Author's last name, Year).
If you do include a quote, use APA’s guidelines for direct quotations of online material without pagination (Section 6.05 of the manual). Name the major sections (chapter, section, and paragraph number; abbreviate if titles are long). This is similar to citing a Bible verse or a line from Shakespeare.
"Direct Quote" (Author's last name, Year, Chapter #, Section #, para. #).
For APA you must include either the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the URL for the eBook collection's homepage. If the book was acquired on an eReader device, include the eReader version in square brackets after the title.
Author last name, First initial.Middle initial. (Year). Title of Work: Subtitle of work [Reader version if available]. doi:xxxx
Author last name, First initial.Middle initial. (Year). Title of Work: Subtitle of work [Reader version if available]. Retrieved from
Eisen, C., & Keefe, S.P. (Eds.). (2006). The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511481383
Fitzgerald, F.S. (2003). The Great Gatsby [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
von Braght, T.J. (1950). Martyrs Mirror. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org
For more information about the APA format, use:
If the eBook contains page numbers, use the author-page format. If the author's name is contained in the sentence, only the page number is required at the end of the sentence.
Quote or paraphrase (Author page).
If the eBook does not contain page numbers, include the author's name at the end of the sentence.
Quote or paraphrase (Author).
eBook citations in the MLA format follow a book citation with additional information about the eBook collection. Remember that your Works Cited page should be double-spaced and the second line indented.
Author's Last Name, First Name (Middle Initial). Title of Book. Publisher, Year. Title of eBook Collection. Access link [if applicable].
Atkins, Peter. Animal Cities: Beastly Urban Histories. Routledge, 2016. ebrary, http://bit.ly/ebrarybook.
For more information about the MLA format, use:
Note: The MLA Handbook has recently changed from the 7th to the 8th edition. The Purdue OWL style guide highlights the major differences from 7th to 8th. (Updated June, 2016)
To learn more about citing other resources, use the following links.