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Frequently Asked Questions: Citing

How do I cite a book, article, website, etc. using APA, MLA or other styles?

Citation & Style Guides in the library

Consult these handbooks, available at the Reference Desk, 4th Floor, in Gumberg Library:

The ACS Style Guide : Effective Communication of Scientific Informatio
n, 3rd Ed., Anne M. Coghill, Lorrin R. Garson, editors

AMA Manual of Style : A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Ed., Cheryl Iverson

The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed.

The Columbia Guide to Online Style
, Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations : Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th Ed. , Kate L. Turabian

MLA Handbook, 8th Ed.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Ed.

Online Citation & Style Guides

The different citation styles are based on specific disciplines of study -- but be sure to find out which style your professor requires.

General Citation Information
Here is a link from Ithaca College Library that includes all styles.

Research & Documentation
Here is some helpful information from an online book by Diane Hacker -- other useful resources from this book include a detailed list of citation styles used by specific disciplines.

AMA Citation Guide
Examples of how to cite sources using the American Medical Association style, used for health sciences. This link is from the University of Washington and refers to the 9th edition. Here is a link to examples from the 10th edition, provided by Samford University.

Examples from Purdue University showing how to cite sources using the American Psychological Association style, used primarily for the social sciences.

APA Style Blog
Blog written by the "APA Style Experts." Provides authoritative interpretations and guidance for  the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

APA Style Tips
Special tips for APA style, including how to write without bias and how to cite electronic sources, in FAQ format from the APA style website.

This is a “quick guide” to some of the basics of Chicago style from the online Chicago Manual of Style. Note that a subscription is needed to access the complete online manual, but there is a trial subscription available.

Chicago & Turabian
Turabian citation is very similar to Chicago, with some slight differences. The Bethany Theological Seminary provides further explanation and examples on how to cite sources.

Clear examples from University of West Florida Libraries on how to cite sources using the Modern Language Association (8th ed.), most often used in the humanities.

Northern Michigan University Guide to APA 2007 Electronic Resources Revision
This guide explains the 2007 changes to the APA guidelines for citing Electronic Resources. NOTE: Do NOT download Northern Michigan's version of the APA document. Please refer to the copy provided through Gumberg Library as listed above.

Brief Guide to Citing Government Information
Here is a guide from the University of Memphis on citing government documents authored by agencies or congress. Note that the examples are in Chicago/Turabian style, so you may need to modify them. 

Guide to Basic Legal Citation
This is an introduction from Cornell University Law School on how to cite legal documents such as constitutions, statutes, and judicial decisions.

Guide to Grammar & Writing

Thanks to the Internet, many different colleges and universities provide access to their helpful writing and grammar guides. Here are a few, starting off with Duquesne’s own writing center:

Duquesne University Writing Center
Find out what services the Writing Center can provide – from appointments with a consultant to online writing sources, the Writing Center is a place to receive assistance and encouragement for writers at any level.

Online Writing Lab (OWL)
From Purdue University, this is a site that provides a variety of useful information on general writing concerns, spelling and grammar, presentations, resumes, style manuals, research papers, and more.

Harvard Writing Center
This site provides instruction on the writing process, including how to create a thesis, construct comparative arguments, and work on revisions. There are also some tips on transitions, summaries, and conclusions.

Grammar Sources
Further resources on grammar and style from the University of Chicago’s Writing Program.

Elements of Style
The classic reference book by William Strunk, Jr. Includes reminders on basic usage, such as when to use its/it’s, does the comma go before or after the parentheses, and how to avoid run-on sentences and commonly misspelled words.