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Frequently Asked Questions: Citing

How do I cite a book, article, website, etc. using APA, MLA or other styles?

Online Citation & Style Guides

The different citation styles are based on specific disciplines of study -- but be sure to find out which style your professor requires.

Citation Management Guide

Learn about using citation managers, citation generators, and style guides.

AMA Citation Guide
Examples of how to cite sources using the American Medical Association style, used for health sciences. 

APA
Examples of how to cite sources using the American Psychological Association style, used for social sciences.

APA Style Blog
Blog written by the "APA Style Experts." Provides authoritative interpretations and guidance for  the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

APA Style Central
Quiz yourself and see example references from this citation database.

Chicago Manual of Style
Access the online 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style for citation information.

Chicago & Turabian
Turabian citation is very similar to Chicago, with some slight differences. The Bethany Theological Seminary provides further explanation and examples on how to cite sources.

MLA Citation Guide
Examples of how to cite sources using the Modern Language Association style, used for liberal arts and humanities.

Brief Guide to Citing Government Information
Here is a guide from the University of Memphis on citing government documents authored by agencies or congress. Note that the examples are in Chicago/Turabian style, so you may need to modify them. 

Guide to Basic Legal Citation
This is an introduction from Cornell University Law School on how to cite legal documents such as constitutions, statutes, and judicial decisions.

Guide to Grammar & Writing

Thanks to the Internet, many different colleges and universities provide access to their helpful writing and grammar guides. Here are a few, starting off with Duquesne’s own writing center:

Duquesne University Writing Center
Find out what services the Writing Center can provide – from appointments with a consultant to online writing sources, the Writing Center is a place to receive assistance and encouragement for writers at any level.

Online Writing Lab (OWL)
From Purdue University, this is a site that provides a variety of useful information on general writing concerns, spelling and grammar, presentations, resumes, style manuals, research papers, and more.

Harvard Writing Center
This site provides instruction on the writing process, including how to create a thesis, construct comparative arguments, and work on revisions. There are also some tips on transitions, summaries, and conclusions.

Grammar Sources
Further resources on grammar and style from the University of Chicago’s Writing Program.

Elements of Style
The classic reference book by William Strunk, Jr. Includes reminders on basic usage, such as when to use its/it’s, does the comma go before or after the parentheses, and how to avoid run-on sentences and commonly misspelled words.