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Business Ethics: Writing & Citing

This resource guide was created in order to help students better understand how to research and gather information about ethical practices in the business, accounting, economics, and financial realm.

Citing Your Sources

There are numerous formats that can be used to cite sources. Most of the time students at Duquesne will find themselves needing to use one of four:

  • MLA - Created by the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and the humanities. The current version is the 8th edition.
  • APA - Created by the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing. The current version is the 6th edition.
  • Chicago Manual of Style - Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 16th edition.
  • Turabian - This style is essentially the same as that presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as a Works Cited page or Reference list).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. PDFs of these documents are available below.

  APA (6th edition): In-text and Reference List

  Chicago, notes and bibliography (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

  Chicago, author-date (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

  MLA (7th): In-text and Works Cited  -- The information in the handouts refers to the outdated 7th edition MLA Handbook.

  Turabian: Quick Guide (UChicago Press)

Other APA Citation Information

The Gumberg Library has also created a document that compares MLA and APA formats and gives more in-depth information on using them in bibliographies than does the DU Writing Center's "Reference List" document in the box above.

Citing Your Sources

While there are numerous citation styles, the one created by the American Psychological Association is the standard format for psychology. It is contained in the

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition

A copy of this is always available for in-library use at the Reference Desk on th 4th floor of the Gumberg Library.

When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. (APA format does not use footnotes, rather it employs parenthetical references.) The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (or "reference list" as it is called in APA format).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with the basics regarding citing in-text and in reference lists in APA format. PDFs of these documents are available below.

 APA (6th edition): In-text and Reference List

Writing Center

Duquesne University Writing Center Website

Citation Guide from the Writing Center and more info on citing from Gumberg Library


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