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American Presidency: Writing & Citing

Citing Your Sources

There are numerous formats that can be used to cite sources. Most of the time students at Duquesne will find themselves needing to use one of four:

MLA : Created by the Modern Language Association, it is mainly used in English and the humanities. The current version is the 7th edition.

APA : Created by the American Psychological Association, it is mainly used in Psychology and some of the other Social Sciences, as well as Nursing. The current version is the 6th edition.

Chicago Manual of Style : Used in many disciplines. The current version is the 16th edition.

Turabian : This style is essentially the same as that presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.


When we speak of citing, two things are meant. The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete bibliographic information for your sources in a bibliography (also known as a Works Cited page or Reference list).

The Duquesne University Writing Center has created very helpful guides to assist you with citing in-text and in bibliographies in MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. PDFs of these documents are available below.

  APA (6th edition): In-text and Reference List

  Chicago, notes and bibliography (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

  Chicago, author-date (16th edition): In-text and Bibliography

  Turabian: Quick Guide (UChicago Press)

  MLA (7th): In-text and Works Cited -- This information refers to the OUTDATED MLA 7th Edition format.

Additional information on citation styles can be found here.

MLA / APA Style Guide

This style guide, created by Gumberg Library, shows examples of citations for different types of sources in both MLA, 7th edition, and APA, 6th edition, styles.

Note: The information in the handouts refers to the outdated 7th edition MLA Handbook.

Writing the Declaration of Independence

Writing the Declaration of Independence, 1776 by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
Source: Wikimedia Commons