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AMA Citation Guide: Gumberg Library

Provides selected AMA citation examples.

AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition

Citation Tools

These tools can help you to save, organize, and format references in AMA and many other styles.

Why Should You Cite?

According to the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition (p. 40):

“References serve 3 primary purposes—documentation, acknowledgement, and directing the reader to additional resources. Authors may cite a reference to support their own arguments or lay the foundation for their theses (documentation); as a credit to the work of other authors (acknowledgment); or direct the reader to more detail or additional resources (directing or linking).”

AMA Citation Guide

This guide provides selected information on citing the literature used by pharmacists using AMA style. When you need additional information, consult the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th ed. (available at Gumberg or the Pharmaceutical Information Center).

Journal Articles

General notes:

  • Include all authors when six or less
  • For more than six authors, list first three followed by "et al."
  • Use periods after journal titles/abbreviations
  • Place issue numbers in parentheses
  • List first and entire last page number

Print
Zoccali C, Maio R, Mallamaci F, Sesti G, Perticone F. Uric acid and endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(5):1466-1471.

Electronic – DOI Present
Laenen J, Roelants M, Devlieger R, Vandermeulen C. Influenza and vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Vaccine. 2015;33(18):2125-2131. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.020.

Electronic – No DOI
Bland DK, Fankhanel Y, Langford E, Lee M, Lee SW, Maloney, C, et al. Intensive versus modified conventional control of blood glucose level in medical intensive care patients: a pilot study. Am J Crit Care. 2005;14(5):370-376. http://ajcc.aacnjournals.org/content/14/5/370.long. Accessed June 25, 2015.

Books

Personal author(s)
Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.

Chapter in a Book
Pai AB, Rohrscheib M, Joy MS. Disorders of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008:861-876.

Edited
Lunney JR, Foley KM, Smith TJ, Gelband H, eds. Describing Death in America: What We Need to Know. Washington, DC: National Policy Board, Institute of Medicine; 2003. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309087252/html. Accessed June 25, 2015.

Drug Information & Medical Resources

General Form for Citing Databases (AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed.)

Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. Publisher’s location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, for all others, city, country): publisher’s name; year of publication and/or last update. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works]. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

General Notes:

  • When a database has a common name, include “[database online]” after its title to help the reader understand what you are citing. AMA uses square brackets for explanatory notes.
  • When listing URLs, provide the database’s primary URL (listed below for each database). Do not use the long URL that you see when accessing the database.
  • Some databases do not list authors. If no author is listed, start your citation with the name of the drug or page you are citing.

Clinical Pharmacology
Etodolac. Clinical Pharmacology [database online]. Tampa, FL: Gold Standard; 2015. http://www.clinicalpharmacology.com. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • Make sure to cite the current publication date, which is listed on all Clinical Pharmacology pages (2015 in the above example).
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.

Facts & Comparisons

Etodolac. Drug Facts and Comparisons. Facts & Comparisons [database online]. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health; March 2014. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Gingko Biloba. Review of Natural Products. Facts & Comparisons [database online]. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health; July 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Estrogen: Alzheimer Disease. Off-Label Drug Facts. Facts & Comparisons [database online]. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health; February 2011. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • List the “book” that you are citing (e.g., Drug Facts and Comparisons, Review of Natural Products, Off-Label Drug Facts in the above examples).
  • Make sure to cite the updated date for the specific the drug monograph (or page) listed on each page (March 2014, July 2015, and February 2011 in the above examples).
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.

Lexi-Comp Online
Etodolac. Lexi-Drugs. Lexi-Comp Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Etodolac. AHFS Essentials: Adult and Pediatric. Lexi-Comp Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Lactic Acid. Lab Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. Lexi-Comp Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • List the “database” that you are citing (e.g., Lexi-Drugs, AHFS Essentials: Adult and Pediatric, Lab Tests and Diagnostic Procedures in the above examples).
  • Make sure to cite the latest copyright date, which is listed on all Lexi-Comp pages a range of dates (the above example uses 2015, the latest date listed).
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.
  • The explanatory note “[database online]” is not included because it’s self-evident from the database name.

Micromedex
Etodolac. Quick Answers. Micromedex Healthcare Series [database online]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Etodolac. In-Depth Answers. Micromedex Healthcare Series [database online]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Etodolac. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Micromedex Healthcare Series [database online]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Active Ingredient: Etodolac. RED BOOK Online. Micromedex Healthcare Series [database online]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the drug name (or page title) for the information you are citing.
  • Indicate the section or book that you are citing (e.g., Quick Answers, In-Depth Answers, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, and RED BOOK Online in the above examples).
  • Make sure to cite the latest publication or copyright date (2015 in the above examples). Look at the bottom of the monograph or page for a publication/update date; if none is listed go to the very bottom of the page and use the Micromedex copyright date listed.
  • Change the access date to the date you read the information.

UpToDate
Solomon DH. Nonselective NSAIDs: Adverse Cardiovascular Effects. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2015. Accessed October 27, 2015.

Database Specific Notes

  • Use the “topic” that you are citing as the title.
  • UpToDate is both the database and the publisher name, which is why it’s listed twice.
  • Since UpToDate is updated every four months, use the current year as the publication date (2015 in the above example).
  • UpToDate recommends using a different method of citing its topics, but the above method is consistent with the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed., approach to citing databases.

Government Publications

Print
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of herpes zoster: recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2008;57(RR-5):1-30.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2000. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2001.

Electronic
Food and Drug Administration. MedWatch. Mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate acid (update). http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2008/safety08.htm#mycophenolate. Accessed August 26, 2008.

Package Inserts

Byetta [package insert]. San Diego, CA: Amylin Pharmaceuticals; 2008.

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Electronic Publications

When citing electronic publications:

  • Add a DOI or URL and accessed date (http://www.iep.utm.edu/bioethic. Accessed June 25, 2015).
  • When possible, AMA recommends using DOIs since they are less transient than URLs.
  • New PubMed records usually contain DOIs.

Journal Abbreviations

Use PubMed journal abbreviations or: